Colunista SeducOnline: CLÁUDIO JOAQUIM

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Tecnologia da Educação

Conceitualização histórica da Educação a Distancia - Parte II

SeducOnline Matéria: Conceitualização histórica da Educação a Distancia - Parte II


Descrição:Começarei a descrição histórica pelo marco histórico que a maioria dos autores concordam no ano de 1728.

O professor Cauleb Philips publicou uma propaganda que se transformou em um marco para a educação a distância. O anúncio ocorreu em 20 de março de 1728 na Gazeta de Boston e dizia: “Toda pessoa da região, desejosa em aprender a arte da Taquigrafia, pode receber em sua casa diversas lições semanalmente e ser perfeitamente instruída, como as pessoas que vivem em Boston”.

1833 – Houve na Suécia o primeiro curso de contabilidade por correspondência e o número 30 do periódico sueco Lunds Weckoblad informa sobre envio postais para os que desejavam estudar Composição por correspondência.

1840 – Em 06 de maio na Inglaterra, por uma ideia de Sir Rowland Hill, estreou o primeiro selo da história do correio (Penny Black) que tinha uma mudança estupenda e simples, pois até aquele momento o valor do selo era pago por quem recebia e não por quem enviava, o que ocasionava um problema para o correio daquela época, pois havia um número muito grande de correspondências que não eram recebidas para que não tivessem que fazer o pagamento das mesmas. A partir daí, o responsável por pagar o selo passou a ser quem enviava, com isso houve um grande sucesso em todas as entregas das cartas. Diante dessa nova possibilidade o Inglês Isaac Pitman escreveu instruções, princípios, lições de taquigrafia e iniciou a enviar para seus alunos criando assim um curso por correspondência.

"No dia 6 de maio de 1840, foi emitido o primeiro selo do mundo. Era todo preto, tinha o valor de 1 penny, e representava a efígie da rainha Vitória. Hoje ele é universalmente conhecido como Black Penny."
Página 24

Cartas e suas histórias - Overlac Menezes - Editora Marco Zero , 2006 - São Paulo. 131 páginas


Segundo o site wikepedia:
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selo_postal acessado em 31 de julho de 2015.

O primeiro selo postal foi o Penny Black, (one penny black), surgido na Inglaterra em 6 de maio de 1840. A ideia foi de Sir Rowland Hill, membro do Parlamento do Reino Unido, para que fosse o remetente a pagar a tarifa, pois antes da criação do selo, o destinatário é que a pagava, criando um enorme número de devoluções.

1843 – Fundou-se "Phonographic Correspondence Society" para encarregar das correções dos exercícios taquigráficos. Inglaterra.

1856 - Charles Toussaint e Gustav Laugenschied fundam a primeira escola por correspondência destinada ao ensino de língua estrangeira, com ensino de francês. Berlim – Alemanha.

1958 – Na Universidade de Londres – Inglaterra, passou a conceder certificação aos alunos externos que recebiam ensino por correspondência.

1873 - Anna Eliot Ticknor fundou a “Society to Encourage Study at Home” - Sociedade para apoio a estudos em casa. Bostom – Massachusetts – Estados Unidos.

Em Indiana Universidade de Bloomington foi criado um departamento de curso por correspondência. Indiana – Estados Unidos.

1833 – Começou a funcionar em Ithaca, Nova Iorque, EUA a Universidade por correspondência.

1891 - Thomas J. Foster, iniciou o International Correspondence Institute com curso sobre segurança no trabalho dos mineiros. Scarnton – Pensylvania. EUA.

A administração da Universidad de Wisconsin aceita a proposta de seus professores para organizar cursos por correspondência nos serviços de extensão universitária e a Universidade de Chicago cria o Departamento de Ensino por correspondência y nos EUA só criadas as Escolas Internacionais por correspondência. Cria-se na França o Centro Ecole Chez Soi.


1892 – O reitor da Universidad de Chicago, William Rainey Harper, que já havia experimentado a utilização da correspondência na formação de docentes para escolas dominicais criou uma divisão de ensino por correspondência em sua universidade.

1894 - O Rutinsches Fernelehrinstitut de Berlín – Alemanha, organiza cursos por correspondência para inscrição de matrícula na Universidade (Abitur).

1895 - Joseph W. Knipe, depois de uma experiência de sucesso para o Certificated Teacher’s Examination, com sua primeira turma com 6 alunos e a segunda com 30 alunos, começa os cursos de Wolsey Hall utilizando o mesmo método de ensino. Oxford – Inglaterra.

1898 - Hans Hermod, diretor de uma escola que ensinava cursos de línguas e cursos comerciais, oferece o primeiro curso do Instituto Hermod en Malmoe – Suecia.

1903 - Julio Cervera Baviera fundou a Escuela Libre de Ingeniero. Valência – Espanha. Nos EUA, as Escolas Cavert de Baltimore, criam um departamento de formação em casa para acolher crianças que estudam em casa com orientações de seus pais.

1910 - Os professores rurais do curso primário começaram a receber materiais de educação secundária pelo correio. Vitória – Austrália.

1911 – A Universidad de Queensland por conta da dificuldade das grandes distâncias começaram experiências com materiais por correspondências. Austrália.

1914 – Funda-se a Norst Correspondanseskole – Noruega e a Fernschule Jena, Alemanha.

1921 - Centro de Ensino Rural por Correspondência de Angers (CERCA), região hoje conhecida como Pays de Loire,mudou a agricultura avançando com qualificação profissional.

Esse curso foi promovido pela Escola Superior de Agricultura e era destinado aos jovens que saíam da escola primária e tinha como objetivo o aprendizado do agricultor.

1921 - Os Mórmons de Salt Lake City, criaram a primeira rádio universitária. EUA.

1922 – A União Soviética organizou um enorme sistema de ensino por correspondência e conseguiu sucesso ao atender cerca de 350 mil pessoas em 02 anos de operação.

A New Zeland Correspondence School, começa suas atividades atendendo as crianças com dificuldades de estar em salas convencionais de ensino primário.

1927 – A rádio BBC iniciou um programa para dar apoio as crianças nas escolas primárias.

1930 - Ao menos 30 universidades americanas já ensinavam utilizando ensino a dist enseñaban utilizando enseño a distancia. (Litwin, Edith. 2001).

1938 – Acontece a primeira conferência internacional sobre educação por correspondência.Victória – Canadá.

1939 – Fundou-se o Centro Nacional de Ensino a Distância (CNED), originalmente direcionada para atender as crianças refugiadas de guerra. França.

1946 - A Universidade da África do Sul (UNISA) começa cursos por correspondência. África do Sul.

1947 – A Faculdade de Letras e Ciências Humanas de Paris, transmite aulas utilizando a Rádio Sorbonne.

1951 – A Universidade da África do Sul dedica-se exclusivamente ao desenvolvimento de cursos a distância.

1960 - China, funda o Beijing Television College.

1962 – A Universidade de Dehli cria um departamento de estudos por correspondência experimental para atender os alunos com dificuldades para receber o ensino convencional. Inicia-se também uma experiência de Bacharelado radiofônico. Espanha.

1963 – Na França, começa o ensino universitário por rádio em cinco faculdades de letras (Bordeaux, Lille, Nancy, Paris y Strasbourg) e a Faculdade de Direito de Paris.

1968 – Funda-se o Centro Nacional de Ensino Médio por rádio e televisão e transforma-se no Instituto Nacional de Ensino Médio a Distância (INEMAD). Espanha.

1969 - Funda-se a British Open University.

1972 – Funda-se a Universidade Nacional de Educação a Distância (UNED). Madrid – España.

1974 – Israel cria sua Universidade Aberta oferecendo cerca de 400 cursos diversos.

1975 - Alemanha funda a Fern Uviversitãt, que dedica-se exclusivamente ao ensino universitário.

1988 - Portugal funda a Universidade Aberta de Portugal.

No Brasil, a história da EaD é mais recente, iniciamos no século XX. Seu início baseIa-se na utilização da correspondência e em na transmissão de programas de rádios. Por conta da grande extensão territorial de 8.514.876,599km², essa modalidade passa a despertar interesse do Governo e da sociedade organizada para levar qualificação para milhares de brasileiros em cursos de diversos níveis de ensino, qualificações e objetivos. Descrevo nos próximos parágrafos alguns marcos significativos da evolução da EaD no Brasil.

1904 – O Jornal do Brasil imprime um anúncio na seção de classificados que oferece curso de datilografia por correspondência.

“No Brasil, o registro pioneiro do ensino por correspondência aconteceu no Jornal do Brasil, em 1904, oferecendo curso para datilógrafo. Alguns anos depois surgiu o Instituto Monitor, primeiro a oferecer sistematicamente cursos profissionalizantes a distância por correspondência. Já a EAD pelo sistema radiofônico brasileiro teve início em 1923, na Rádio Sociedade do Rio de Janeiro.”


http://www.ead.senac.br/noticias/2013/08/
historia-da-educacao-a-distancia-inclui-cursos-por-cartas-e-radio/
14 março 2015 – 15:00

"A trajetória histórica/cronológica dos marcos da Educação a Distância – EaD no Brasil, que tiveram início em 1904, com a oferta de cursos
profissionalizantes por correspondência, para Datilógrafo, divulgado em anúncio pelo Jornal do Brasil,(..)"
Página 9

EDUCAÇÃO A DISTÂNCIA: ABORDAGEM HISTÓRICA E CONTRIBUIÇÕES DO NEAD/UFMA AO ESTADO DO MARANHÃO -São Luís-MA, 05/2012 Pesquisa e Avaliação
http://www.abed.org.br/congresso2012/anais/267f.pdf

1923 – Fundação do Rádio Sociedade do Rio de Janeiro, fundada por Henrique Morize y Roquette Pinto, com cursos de francês, português, literatura francesa, silvicultura, esperanto, radiotelegrafia e telefonia.

1927 – Foi criada no Rio de Janeiro, a Comissão de Cinema Educação.

1932 – Proposta para uso de rádio, cinema e impressos na educação brasileira por educadores que fundaram a Escola Nova.

1934 – Rádio Escola-Municipal na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, criada por Edgard Roquette Pinto. Utilizava como apoio aos estudantes materiais enviados por correspondência como parte integrante do processo educativo.

1936 – Doação da Rádio Sociedade do Rio de Janeiro ao Ministério da Educação e Saúde.

1937 – Criação do serviço de Rádiofusão educativa do Ministério da Educação.

1939 – Criação do Instituto Rádio Técnico Monitor, que utilizava correspondência para oferecer cursos de formação profissional. O instituto foi fundado por Nicolás Goldberger, um húngaro que chegou ao Brasil na década de 30. O Instituto Monitor já matriculou mais de 5 milhões de alunos, nos dias atuais tem cerca de 55 mil alunos estudando.

1941 – Criação do Instituto Universal Brasileiro (IUB), utilizando de cursos por correspondência.

1947 – Senac, Sesc e emissoras associadas, fundam a Universidade do Ar (UNAR), o projeto durou até 1962 e beneficiou 91 mil pessoas. As gravações eram realizadas no estúdio e transmitidas para 47 emissoras de rádio no Estado de São Paulo.

1959 – Início das escolas radiofônicas em Natal (RN), criadas pela Diocese de Natal que naquela época era coordenada por Dom Eugênio Sales. Esse marco deu início ao Movimento da Educação de Base (MEB).

1960 – Expansão do sistema de escolas radiofônicas nos estados do nordeste do Brasil, fundando o Movimento de Educação de Base (MEB) que é um sistema de ensino formal.

1962 – Fundada em São Paulo na Escola direcionada ao ensino de eletrônica – Ocidental School.

1965-1970 – Criação das Televisões Educativas

1965 – Funda-se a Comissão para estudos e planejamento da Rádiodifusão educativa.

1966 até 1974. Criação de 08 emissoras estaduais de televisão educativa.

1967 – No Estado de São Paulo foi criada a Fundação Padre Anchieta que foi mantida pelo Estado de São Paulo para promover atividades culturais e educativas utilizando o rádio e a televisão, a transmissão começou em 1969.

1969 – No estado do Maranhão foi criado o Centro Educativo do Maranhão – TVE Maranhão/CEMA, com programas educativos para a 5ª séria (circuito fechado) e a partir de 1970 no circuito aberto para 5ª e 6ª séries.

1970 – Com base na Portaria 408/70 do MEC, as emissoras comerciais de rádio e televisão passaram a ter a obrigatoriedade de transmitir de maneira gratuita 30 minutos diários de segunda a sexta-feira e 75 minutos aos sábados e domingos. Começaram em cadeia nacional o Projeto Minerva com diversos cursos. O projeto Minerva foi criado por uma associação entre o Ministério da Educação e a Fundação Padre Landell e Fundação Padre Anchieta. Utilizava rádio para oferecer diversos cursos direcionados as pessoas adultas em cadeia nacional. Sua primeira transmissão foi em 01 de setembro de 1970.

1971 – Funda-se a Associação Brasileira de Tele-Educação (ABT). Começou capacitando professores por correspondência.

1972 – Criação do Programa Nacional de Tele-Educação (PRONTEL), dando força ao Sistema Nacional de Rádiodifusão Educativa (SINRED)

1972 – O projeto Minerva produziu o curso supletivo 1º grau. Agora com a participação do MEC, PRONTEL, Centro Nacional de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal para Formação Profissional (CENAFOR) e secretarias estaduais de educação.

1973 – O Projeto Minerva produziu o Curso Supletivo de 1º Grau (II Fase), em associação com o MEC, PRONTEL, CENAFOR e secretarias estaduais de educação.

Em 1973/74 – Inicia o Projeto SACI (Sistema Avançado de Comunicações Interdisciplinares) com o apoio do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) e com a conclusão dos estudos para o curso Supletivo “João da Silva”, utilizando o formato de telenovela, ensinando para as 04 primeiras séries do primeiro grau. Este projeto da TVE foi inovador na Tele Didática..

1974 - O Centro de Ensino Técnico de Brasília (CETEB) inicia o plano de cursos em associação com a Petrobras, capacitando os empregados da empresa e com o projeto Logus II, junto com o MEC para capacitar professores leigos sem afastá-los da atividade docente. A TVE Ceará iniciou suas tele classes.

1976 – Criado o Sistema Nacional de Teleducação, ensino por correspondência que experimentava a utilização de rádio e televisão.

1978 - A Fundação Padre Anchieta (TV Cultura / SP) e Fundação Roberto Marinho estreia seu Telecurso de 2º grau, com programas televisivos apoiados por materiais impressos, preparava alunos para os exames supletivos.

1979 – Criação do projeto Conquista, que utiliza telenovelas para dar aulas as últimas séries do primeiro grau. Criação da Fundação Centro Brasileiro de Televisão Educativa/MEC (FCBTVE), dando a continuidade ao curso “João da Silva”. Começa também a utilização de programas para alfabetização por TV em todas as capitais do Brasil.

1979 até 1983 – A Coordenação de aperfeiçoamento de pessoal do Ensino Superior (CAPES), oferece em caráter experimental o curso de pós-graduação tutoria e distância para capacitar docentes universitários do interior do Brasil, isso com a administração da Associação Brasileira de Tecnologia Educativa (ABT).

1980 – A Associação Brasileira de Tele-educação (ABT), passou a oferecer cursos de pós-graduação Lato Sensu utilizando-se de ensino com tutoria.

1981 – A FCBTVE mudou sua sigla para FUNTEVE e passou a coordenar atividades da TV Educativa do Rio de Janeiro, da Rádio MEC-Rio, da Rádio MEC-Brasília, de Centro de Cinema educativo e do Centro de Informática Educativa.

1983/1984 – Criada a Televisão Educativa de Mato Grosso do Sul. Começa o projeto Ipê coordenado pela Secretaria de Educação de Estado de São Paulo e da Fundação Padre Anchieta com cursos direcionados para o magistério de primeiro e segundo grau.

1988 – Projeto Verso e Reverso – Educando o Educador, curso por correspondência que foi utilizado para capacitar professores de educação básica de jovens e adultos da Fundação Nacional para a Educação de Jovens e Adultos (Educar), a exibição de seus programas eram apresentados pela Rede Manchete de Televisão.

1991 – O projeto Ipê passa a enfatizar conteúdos curriculares. Construção da Rede Nacional de Pesquisa (RNP) com infraestrutura da rede de Internet Nacional para a Comunidade Acadêmica.

Em 1º de agosto foi estreia da primeira edição do “Jornal de Educação – Edição do Professor” na TVE Brasil.

1992 – O Jornal de Educação – Edição do Professor passou a ter ampliação nacional e passou a chamar-se “Um Salto para o Futuro”.

1995 – Salto para o Futuro, programa de educação continuada assou a ser incorporado na TV Escola.

1996 – Aprovada a Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação. Bases legais para o desenvolvimento da EaD no Brasil.

2005 - O Decreto 5.622, de 19.12.2005 da LDB – Brasil. Regulamenta a EaD.

2006 – A Universidade Aberta do Brasil foi criada pelo Governo Federal. É um sistema integrado por universidades públicas oferecendo cursos de nível superior por meio de uso de tecnologias de EaD. Foi instituída pelo Decreto Lei 5.800 de 08 de junho de 2006.
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    Conceitualização histórica da Educação a Distancia - Parte I

    Iniciamos esse texto buscando a origem etimológica da palavra educação. Encontramos 'educar' que tem origem no latim “educare” - criar, educar, instruir, “educere”, verbo composto do profixo “ex” (fora) + “ducere” (conduzir, guiar, liderar, levar), de uma